Europäisches Beihilfenrecht Blog

State Aid Uncovered by Prof Phedon Nicolaides

In Lexxions Blog „State Aid Uncovered” veröffentlicht Prof. Phedon Nicolaides wöchentlich kritische Analysen zu den neuesten Urteilen und Entscheidungen zu staatlichen Beihilfen. Jeder Beitrag stellt die wichtigsten Punkte eines Gerichtsurteils oder einer EU-Kommissionsentscheidung vor, ordnet sie in den Kontext ähnlicher Rechtsprechung oder Praxis ein, bewertet die zugrundeliegende Argumentation und zeigt etwaige Ungereimtheiten oder Widersprüche auf.

In loser Folge werden auf diesem Blog auch Gastbeiträge von anderen Experten für staatliche Beihilfen veröffentlicht, welche die Inhalte der Blogbeiträge ergänzen.

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Professor at Maastricht University; Professor at University of Nicosia, and Academic Director at Lexxion Training

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Compensation for Damage

Introduction On 28 September 2023, the Court of Justice, in case C-320/21 P, Ryanair v European Commission, delivered its first judgment in a series of appeals brought by Ryanair challenging the dismissal by the General Court of its action in multiple cases seeking the annulment of various Commission decisions authorising aid to airlines during the covid-19 pandemic. Both before the […]

The Consequences of not Knowing when State Aid is State Aid

Introduction Public officials, legal advisors and academics are sometimes frustrated by the practice of the Commission of declaring a public measure as being compatible with the internal market without first taking a firm position on whether that measure constitutes State aid. The Commission would say something like “it is not certain whether the aided activity is economic in nature” or […]

Natural Disasters and State Aid

Compensation for damage suffered by undertakings as a result of a natural disaster constitutes State aid. The compensation is compatible with the internal market only if, first, there is a causal relationship between the natural disaster and the damage and, second, the amount of compensation does not exceed the amount of the damage. Introduction Financial assistance in the form of […]

Compensation for Damage and De Minimis Aid

Compensation for damage caused by protected animals is State aid. Member States may categorise compensatory payments as de minimis aid and refuse to make payments in excess of the de minimis threshold. Introduction Advantage in the meaning of Article 107(1) TFEU is any benefit granted by the state that is not available under normal market conditions. Normal market conditions are […]

Compensation and State Aid

An event that causes damage for which the state is liable is distinct from the act that confers the right for compensation. Introduction The concept of State aid covers all resources that are controlled by the state, regardless of the reason why such resources may be transferred to or put at the disposal of an undertaking. On 25 January 2022, […]

Compensatory Payments and State Resources

Funds used in compensation mechanisms mandated by the state become state resources Introduction The Court of Justice has stressed repeatedly that any resource over which the state can exercise control becomes a state resource, regardless of whether it is managed by a public authority or a private entity. Member States, however, keep inventing novel and complicated arrangements in which mandated […]

Assignment of Public Service Obligations

The compensation for public service obligations may include reasonable profit and incentives for cost reduction. Introduction Member States have discretion to define services they consider to be in the general economic interest [SGEI]. However, they need to justify that definition. The Court of Justice has ruled on numerous occasions that an SGEI has “special characteristics” that set it apart from […]

A Rare Commission Decision on an SGEI Measure that Could Have Been Exempted from Notification

A public service obligation must be imposed by an act of entrustment that describes in detail the terms of the obligation, identifies the undertaking that offers the service and lays down procedures for preventing over-compensation. Introduction The purpose of Commission Decision 2012/21 on services of general economic interest [SGEI] is, like the GBER, to exempt certain aid measures from prior […]

Compensation for Universal Service Provision

As long as the compensation does not exceed the net extra costs of the universal service activities, it may be used to offset other costs. Introduction The rules on State aid for services of general economic interest [SGEI] are very generous because they allow both investment and operating aid. Yet, it is not easy to comply with those rules because […]

Employees’ Social Security Contributions and Compensation for Damage

Fiscal benefits to employees do not constitute State aid as long as they do not confer a direct or indirect advantage to their employers. Update on Temporary Framework: Number of approved and published Covid-19 measures, as of 16 October 2020: 302* Legal basis: Article 107(2)(b): 32; Article 107(3)(b): 255; Article 107(3)(c): 23 Average number of measures per Member State: 11 […]

- compensation ×

Compensation for Damage

Introduction On 28 September 2023, the Court of Justice, in case C-320/21 P, Ryanair v European Commission, delivered its first judgment in a series of appeals brought by Ryanair challenging the dismissal by the General Court of its action in multiple cases seeking the annulment of various Commission decisions authorising aid to airlines during the covid-19 pandemic. Both before the […]

The Consequences of not Knowing when State Aid is State Aid

Introduction Public officials, legal advisors and academics are sometimes frustrated by the practice of the Commission of declaring a public measure as being compatible with the internal market without first taking a firm position on whether that measure constitutes State aid. The Commission would say something like “it is not certain whether the aided activity is economic in nature” or […]

Natural Disasters and State Aid

Compensation for damage suffered by undertakings as a result of a natural disaster constitutes State aid. The compensation is compatible with the internal market only if, first, there is a causal relationship between the natural disaster and the damage and, second, the amount of compensation does not exceed the amount of the damage. Introduction Financial assistance in the form of […]

Compensation for Damage and De Minimis Aid

Compensation for damage caused by protected animals is State aid. Member States may categorise compensatory payments as de minimis aid and refuse to make payments in excess of the de minimis threshold. Introduction Advantage in the meaning of Article 107(1) TFEU is any benefit granted by the state that is not available under normal market conditions. Normal market conditions are […]

Compensation and State Aid

An event that causes damage for which the state is liable is distinct from the act that confers the right for compensation. Introduction The concept of State aid covers all resources that are controlled by the state, regardless of the reason why such resources may be transferred to or put at the disposal of an undertaking. On 25 January 2022, […]

Compensatory Payments and State Resources

Funds used in compensation mechanisms mandated by the state become state resources Introduction The Court of Justice has stressed repeatedly that any resource over which the state can exercise control becomes a state resource, regardless of whether it is managed by a public authority or a private entity. Member States, however, keep inventing novel and complicated arrangements in which mandated […]

Assignment of Public Service Obligations

The compensation for public service obligations may include reasonable profit and incentives for cost reduction. Introduction Member States have discretion to define services they consider to be in the general economic interest [SGEI]. However, they need to justify that definition. The Court of Justice has ruled on numerous occasions that an SGEI has “special characteristics” that set it apart from […]

A Rare Commission Decision on an SGEI Measure that Could Have Been Exempted from Notification

A public service obligation must be imposed by an act of entrustment that describes in detail the terms of the obligation, identifies the undertaking that offers the service and lays down procedures for preventing over-compensation. Introduction The purpose of Commission Decision 2012/21 on services of general economic interest [SGEI] is, like the GBER, to exempt certain aid measures from prior […]

Compensation for Universal Service Provision

As long as the compensation does not exceed the net extra costs of the universal service activities, it may be used to offset other costs. Introduction The rules on State aid for services of general economic interest [SGEI] are very generous because they allow both investment and operating aid. Yet, it is not easy to comply with those rules because […]

Employees’ Social Security Contributions and Compensation for Damage

Fiscal benefits to employees do not constitute State aid as long as they do not confer a direct or indirect advantage to their employers. Update on Temporary Framework: Number of approved and published Covid-19 measures, as of 16 October 2020: 302* Legal basis: Article 107(2)(b): 32; Article 107(3)(b): 255; Article 107(3)(c): 23 Average number of measures per Member State: 11 […]

- compensation ×

Compensation for Damage

Introduction On 28 September 2023, the Court of Justice, in case C-320/21 P, Ryanair v European Commission, delivered its first judgment in a series of appeals brought by Ryanair challenging the dismissal by the General Court of its action in multiple cases seeking the annulment of various Commission decisions authorising aid to airlines during the covid-19 pandemic. Both before the […]

The Consequences of not Knowing when State Aid is State Aid

Introduction Public officials, legal advisors and academics are sometimes frustrated by the practice of the Commission of declaring a public measure as being compatible with the internal market without first taking a firm position on whether that measure constitutes State aid. The Commission would say something like “it is not certain whether the aided activity is economic in nature” or […]

Natural Disasters and State Aid

Compensation for damage suffered by undertakings as a result of a natural disaster constitutes State aid. The compensation is compatible with the internal market only if, first, there is a causal relationship between the natural disaster and the damage and, second, the amount of compensation does not exceed the amount of the damage. Introduction Financial assistance in the form of […]

Compensation for Damage and De Minimis Aid

Compensation for damage caused by protected animals is State aid. Member States may categorise compensatory payments as de minimis aid and refuse to make payments in excess of the de minimis threshold. Introduction Advantage in the meaning of Article 107(1) TFEU is any benefit granted by the state that is not available under normal market conditions. Normal market conditions are […]

Compensation and State Aid

An event that causes damage for which the state is liable is distinct from the act that confers the right for compensation. Introduction The concept of State aid covers all resources that are controlled by the state, regardless of the reason why such resources may be transferred to or put at the disposal of an undertaking. On 25 January 2022, […]

Compensatory Payments and State Resources

Funds used in compensation mechanisms mandated by the state become state resources Introduction The Court of Justice has stressed repeatedly that any resource over which the state can exercise control becomes a state resource, regardless of whether it is managed by a public authority or a private entity. Member States, however, keep inventing novel and complicated arrangements in which mandated […]

Assignment of Public Service Obligations

The compensation for public service obligations may include reasonable profit and incentives for cost reduction. Introduction Member States have discretion to define services they consider to be in the general economic interest [SGEI]. However, they need to justify that definition. The Court of Justice has ruled on numerous occasions that an SGEI has “special characteristics” that set it apart from […]

A Rare Commission Decision on an SGEI Measure that Could Have Been Exempted from Notification

A public service obligation must be imposed by an act of entrustment that describes in detail the terms of the obligation, identifies the undertaking that offers the service and lays down procedures for preventing over-compensation. Introduction The purpose of Commission Decision 2012/21 on services of general economic interest [SGEI] is, like the GBER, to exempt certain aid measures from prior […]

Compensation for Universal Service Provision

As long as the compensation does not exceed the net extra costs of the universal service activities, it may be used to offset other costs. Introduction The rules on State aid for services of general economic interest [SGEI] are very generous because they allow both investment and operating aid. Yet, it is not easy to comply with those rules because […]

Employees’ Social Security Contributions and Compensation for Damage

Fiscal benefits to employees do not constitute State aid as long as they do not confer a direct or indirect advantage to their employers. Update on Temporary Framework: Number of approved and published Covid-19 measures, as of 16 October 2020: 302* Legal basis: Article 107(2)(b): 32; Article 107(3)(b): 255; Article 107(3)(c): 23 Average number of measures per Member State: 11 […]

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