Europäisches Beihilfenrecht Blog

State Aid Uncovered Blog

On a weekly basis Phedon Nicolaides posts critical analysis pieces on the latest State aid judgments and decisions on his blog State Aid Uncovered. Each article presents the main points of a court ruling or Commission‘s decision, places them in the context of similar case law or practice, assesses the underlying reasoning, and identifies any inconsistencies or contradictions.
Occasional guest blog posts by other State aid experts complement the State aid knowledge hub.

Join the debate now!

Professor at Maastricht University; Professor at University of Nicosia, and Academic Director at Lexxion Training

- Proportionality ×

Restructuring State Aid

Introduction State aid to failing undertakings is the most distortionary form of public subsidies. They prevent the market exit of inefficient companies. For this reason, State aid for rescue or restructuring of undertakings in difficulty must always be notified to the Commission which examines each case very carefully and allows this kind of aid only when, among other things, the […]

Applying the Funding Gap Method to an Important Project of Common European Interest – Part II

Introduction On 28 February 2024, the General Court delivered an important judgment in case T-390/20, Scandlines v Commission.(1) The judgment is important because it interpreted the Commission guidelines on Important Projects of Common European Interest [IPCEI], the funding gap methodology for determining the necessary amount of aid and the 2008 Commission Notice on state guarantees. Scandlines sought annulment of Commission […]

Applying the Funding Gap Method to an Important Project of Common European Interest – Part I

Introduction On 28 February 2024, the General Court delivered an important judgment in case T-390/20, Scandlines v Commission.(1) The judgment is important because it interpreted the Commission guidelines on Important Projects of Common European Interest [IPCEI], the funding gap methodology for determining the necessary amount of aid and the 2008 Commission Notice on state guarantees. Scandlines sought annulment of Commission […]

Another Case of Indirect State Aid

Introduction On 19 May 2021, the General Court, in case T-643/20, Ryanair v Commission, annulled Commission decision SA.57116 by which it authorised State aid in favour of KLM in the context of the measures implemented by the Dutch government to address the covid-19 pandemic. In July 2021, the Commission re-adopted its original decision without the errors that had been identified […]

The Temporary Framework Allows Member States to Grant Aid only to SMEs 

Introduction  Although discrimination is in general prohibited in the EU, the fact remains that in the field of State aid Member States may grant State aid only to certain companies and may also decide how much aid to grant.  That the granting of State aid relies solely on the discretion of Member States has recently been re-confirmed by the General […]

Compensation for Damage Caused by COVID-19 Combined with Rescue Aid

Introduction Member States are allowed to grant state to compensate undertakings for damage they suffer as a result of a natural disaster or exceptional occurrence. But, it is not always easy or possible to disentangle the damage caused by such an unforeseen event from losses caused by mismanagement or changes of market conditions. The art and science of calculating the […]

Individual Aid to Counter the Effects of Serious Economic Disturbance Is Legally Possible, but Is it Appropriate?

Individual aid need not be capable itself to remedy serious economic disturbance in the economy of a Member State. It is sufficient that it contributes to that effect. Introduction On 22 June 2022, in case T‑657/20, Ryanair v European Commission, the General Court confirmed once more that Member States have a right to grant State aid to the undertakings of […]

State Aid May be Limited to Undertakings with Close Links with the National Economy (Part II)

State aid may be used to compensate airlines licensed by domestic authorities for losses incurred as a result of national travel restrictions. [In case you have missed part I, you can access it here.] Introduction The European Commission acted swiftly to adopt a fairly accommodating and wide-ranging “Temporary Framework” to regulate State aid for the purposes of counter-acting the impact […]

State Aid May be Limited to Undertakings with Close Links with the National Economy (Part I)

State aid may be used to compensate airlines licensed by domestic authorities for losses incurred as a result of national travel restrictions. Introduction The European Commission acted swiftly to adopt a fairly accommodating and wide-ranging “Temporary Framework” to regulate State aid for the purposes of counter-acting the impact of covid-19. The Temporary Framework was welcomed by both Member States and […]

The Common European Interest and the Environmental Impact of State Aid: The Case of Nuclear Power

I am grateful to Peter Staviczky for comments on an earlier version. The possible negative impact of State aid on the environmental is taken into account when the aid measure violates directly the relevant EU law. The Commission protects the interests of other Member States by ensuring that the negative effects of State aid are kept to the minimum possible. […]

- Proportionality ×

Restructuring State Aid

Introduction State aid to failing undertakings is the most distortionary form of public subsidies. They prevent the market exit of inefficient companies. For this reason, State aid for rescue or restructuring of undertakings in difficulty must always be notified to the Commission which examines each case very carefully and allows this kind of aid only when, among other things, the […]

Applying the Funding Gap Method to an Important Project of Common European Interest – Part II

Introduction On 28 February 2024, the General Court delivered an important judgment in case T-390/20, Scandlines v Commission.(1) The judgment is important because it interpreted the Commission guidelines on Important Projects of Common European Interest [IPCEI], the funding gap methodology for determining the necessary amount of aid and the 2008 Commission Notice on state guarantees. Scandlines sought annulment of Commission […]

Applying the Funding Gap Method to an Important Project of Common European Interest – Part I

Introduction On 28 February 2024, the General Court delivered an important judgment in case T-390/20, Scandlines v Commission.(1) The judgment is important because it interpreted the Commission guidelines on Important Projects of Common European Interest [IPCEI], the funding gap methodology for determining the necessary amount of aid and the 2008 Commission Notice on state guarantees. Scandlines sought annulment of Commission […]

Another Case of Indirect State Aid

Introduction On 19 May 2021, the General Court, in case T-643/20, Ryanair v Commission, annulled Commission decision SA.57116 by which it authorised State aid in favour of KLM in the context of the measures implemented by the Dutch government to address the covid-19 pandemic. In July 2021, the Commission re-adopted its original decision without the errors that had been identified […]

The Temporary Framework Allows Member States to Grant Aid only to SMEs 

Introduction  Although discrimination is in general prohibited in the EU, the fact remains that in the field of State aid Member States may grant State aid only to certain companies and may also decide how much aid to grant.  That the granting of State aid relies solely on the discretion of Member States has recently been re-confirmed by the General […]

Compensation for Damage Caused by COVID-19 Combined with Rescue Aid

Introduction Member States are allowed to grant state to compensate undertakings for damage they suffer as a result of a natural disaster or exceptional occurrence. But, it is not always easy or possible to disentangle the damage caused by such an unforeseen event from losses caused by mismanagement or changes of market conditions. The art and science of calculating the […]

Individual Aid to Counter the Effects of Serious Economic Disturbance Is Legally Possible, but Is it Appropriate?

Individual aid need not be capable itself to remedy serious economic disturbance in the economy of a Member State. It is sufficient that it contributes to that effect. Introduction On 22 June 2022, in case T‑657/20, Ryanair v European Commission, the General Court confirmed once more that Member States have a right to grant State aid to the undertakings of […]

State Aid May be Limited to Undertakings with Close Links with the National Economy (Part II)

State aid may be used to compensate airlines licensed by domestic authorities for losses incurred as a result of national travel restrictions. [In case you have missed part I, you can access it here.] Introduction The European Commission acted swiftly to adopt a fairly accommodating and wide-ranging “Temporary Framework” to regulate State aid for the purposes of counter-acting the impact […]

State Aid May be Limited to Undertakings with Close Links with the National Economy (Part I)

State aid may be used to compensate airlines licensed by domestic authorities for losses incurred as a result of national travel restrictions. Introduction The European Commission acted swiftly to adopt a fairly accommodating and wide-ranging “Temporary Framework” to regulate State aid for the purposes of counter-acting the impact of covid-19. The Temporary Framework was welcomed by both Member States and […]

The Common European Interest and the Environmental Impact of State Aid: The Case of Nuclear Power

I am grateful to Peter Staviczky for comments on an earlier version. The possible negative impact of State aid on the environmental is taken into account when the aid measure violates directly the relevant EU law. The Commission protects the interests of other Member States by ensuring that the negative effects of State aid are kept to the minimum possible. […]

- Proportionality ×

Restructuring State Aid

Introduction State aid to failing undertakings is the most distortionary form of public subsidies. They prevent the market exit of inefficient companies. For this reason, State aid for rescue or restructuring of undertakings in difficulty must always be notified to the Commission which examines each case very carefully and allows this kind of aid only when, among other things, the […]

Applying the Funding Gap Method to an Important Project of Common European Interest – Part II

Introduction On 28 February 2024, the General Court delivered an important judgment in case T-390/20, Scandlines v Commission.(1) The judgment is important because it interpreted the Commission guidelines on Important Projects of Common European Interest [IPCEI], the funding gap methodology for determining the necessary amount of aid and the 2008 Commission Notice on state guarantees. Scandlines sought annulment of Commission […]

Applying the Funding Gap Method to an Important Project of Common European Interest – Part I

Introduction On 28 February 2024, the General Court delivered an important judgment in case T-390/20, Scandlines v Commission.(1) The judgment is important because it interpreted the Commission guidelines on Important Projects of Common European Interest [IPCEI], the funding gap methodology for determining the necessary amount of aid and the 2008 Commission Notice on state guarantees. Scandlines sought annulment of Commission […]

Another Case of Indirect State Aid

Introduction On 19 May 2021, the General Court, in case T-643/20, Ryanair v Commission, annulled Commission decision SA.57116 by which it authorised State aid in favour of KLM in the context of the measures implemented by the Dutch government to address the covid-19 pandemic. In July 2021, the Commission re-adopted its original decision without the errors that had been identified […]

The Temporary Framework Allows Member States to Grant Aid only to SMEs 

Introduction  Although discrimination is in general prohibited in the EU, the fact remains that in the field of State aid Member States may grant State aid only to certain companies and may also decide how much aid to grant.  That the granting of State aid relies solely on the discretion of Member States has recently been re-confirmed by the General […]

Compensation for Damage Caused by COVID-19 Combined with Rescue Aid

Introduction Member States are allowed to grant state to compensate undertakings for damage they suffer as a result of a natural disaster or exceptional occurrence. But, it is not always easy or possible to disentangle the damage caused by such an unforeseen event from losses caused by mismanagement or changes of market conditions. The art and science of calculating the […]

Individual Aid to Counter the Effects of Serious Economic Disturbance Is Legally Possible, but Is it Appropriate?

Individual aid need not be capable itself to remedy serious economic disturbance in the economy of a Member State. It is sufficient that it contributes to that effect. Introduction On 22 June 2022, in case T‑657/20, Ryanair v European Commission, the General Court confirmed once more that Member States have a right to grant State aid to the undertakings of […]

State Aid May be Limited to Undertakings with Close Links with the National Economy (Part II)

State aid may be used to compensate airlines licensed by domestic authorities for losses incurred as a result of national travel restrictions. [In case you have missed part I, you can access it here.] Introduction The European Commission acted swiftly to adopt a fairly accommodating and wide-ranging “Temporary Framework” to regulate State aid for the purposes of counter-acting the impact […]

State Aid May be Limited to Undertakings with Close Links with the National Economy (Part I)

State aid may be used to compensate airlines licensed by domestic authorities for losses incurred as a result of national travel restrictions. Introduction The European Commission acted swiftly to adopt a fairly accommodating and wide-ranging “Temporary Framework” to regulate State aid for the purposes of counter-acting the impact of covid-19. The Temporary Framework was welcomed by both Member States and […]

The Common European Interest and the Environmental Impact of State Aid: The Case of Nuclear Power

I am grateful to Peter Staviczky for comments on an earlier version. The possible negative impact of State aid on the environmental is taken into account when the aid measure violates directly the relevant EU law. The Commission protects the interests of other Member States by ensuring that the negative effects of State aid are kept to the minimum possible. […]

How to Submit a Blog Post

Do you want to share your analysis of a State aid law topic? We invite you to submit your post on, for example: recent European, national or international judgments or legislation with relevance to EU State aid law; new developments, publications, hot topics in EU State aid law. The recommended length of the post is 500-2,000 words incl. references (endnotes). Your analysis will be published under the category ‘Guest State Aid Blog’.

Here’s how you can publish a post on the Blog as a guest author:

Step 1: Submit your draft to Nelly Stratieva at stratieva@lexxion.eu.

Step 2: We at Lexxion will review your draft to make sure its content and quality fit the blog. If needed, they will suggest what improvements you should make.

Step 3: Once your draft has been finalised and accepted, we will publish your post.

Gastbeitrag einreichen

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