State Aid Law Blog

State Aid Uncovered Blog/Guest State Aid Blog

On a weekly basis Phedon Nicolaides posts critical analysis pieces on the latest State aid judgments and decisions on his blog State Aid Uncovered. Each article presents the main points of a court ruling or Commission‘s decision, places them in the context of similar case law or practice, assesses the underlying reasoning, and identifies any inconsistencies or contradictions.
Occasional guest blog posts by other State aid experts complement the State aid knowledge hub.

Join the debate now!

- Article 107(3)(b) ×

The Problem of Multiple Awards of Aid to the Undertaking and to the Same Group

Multiple awards of aid to the same undertaking are allowed as long as they cover different costs. Multiple awards of aid to the same group are allowed as long as aid does not leak from one undertaking in the group to another. Introduction In the first half of 2021, the General Court ruled in ten cases of appeal lodged by […]

Individual Aid Measures to Combat Covid-19

Aid to remedy a serious economic disturbance may be granted to a single company that is important for the national economy. EU law does not extend to competitors a right to the same aid. Introduction Between March 2020 and April 2021, the European Commission has authorised aid totalling more than EUR 2.5 trillion to remedy the serious economic disturbance caused […]

The Pan-European Guarantee Fund: The First State Aid Instrument at EU Level

The Fund managed by the EIB constitutes State aid granted collectively by participating Member States. Introduction One of the many responses of the European Union to the economic harm wreaked by the pandemic was the establishment of the Pan-European Guarantee Fund [the Fund] by the European Investment Bank. Member States were invited to contribute to the Fund. This is both […]

State Aid May be Limited to Undertakings with Close Links with the National Economy (Part II)

State aid may be used to compensate airlines licensed by domestic authorities for losses incurred as a result of national travel restrictions. [In case you have missed part I, you can access it here.] Introduction The European Commission acted swiftly to adopt a fairly accommodating and wide-ranging “Temporary Framework” to regulate State aid for the purposes of counter-acting the impact […]

State Aid May be Limited to Undertakings with Close Links with the National Economy (Part I)

State aid may be used to compensate airlines licensed by domestic authorities for losses incurred as a result of national travel restrictions. Introduction The European Commission acted swiftly to adopt a fairly accommodating and wide-ranging “Temporary Framework” to regulate State aid for the purposes of counter-acting the impact of covid-19. The Temporary Framework was welcomed by both Member States and […]

i) Investor-State Arbitration ii) Recovery of Incompatible State Aid iii) State Aid Scoreboard 2019

Euromünzen
Member States abolish bilateral investment treaties between themselves. When the Commission orders recovery of incompatible State aid, interest has to be added to the recoverable amount for the whole period of illegality regardless of any national limitation rules. In 2018, Member States granted EUR 121 billion to industry and services, EUR 6.3 billion to agriculture and EUR 50 billion to […]

No New Aid to Undertakings that Have not Yet Repaid Incompatible Aid

Money in Hands
There is no rule in EU law obliging Member States to grant State aid. The European Commission may refuse to authorise aid until previous aid that was found to be incompatible with the internal market is paid back. Temporary Framework: Number of approved covid-19 measures, as of 16 May 2020: 125* Legal basis: Article 107(2)(b): 10; Article 107(3)(b): 105; Article […]

How to Make Good the Damage Caused by a Natural Disaster

Compensation for costs incurred as a result of a natural disaster is State aid. The compensation must be for damage directly caused by the natural disaster. Introduction State aid to make good the damage caused by an “exceptional occurrence” such as the corona virus covid-19 is compatible with the internal market. The legal basis for exemption is Article 107(2)(b). Of […]

A New Temporary State aid Framework to Fight the Effects of the Corona Virus

corona virus poster
Member States will be allowed to provide grants, guarantees and loans to companies to alleviate the effects of the corona virus. Introduction At the end of 2009, the European Commission adopted a Temporary Framework of State aid rules to enable Member States to support companies that were harmed by the outbreak of the financial crisis in 2008. Now, the corona […]

PART II: Green Electricity and Reduction of Energy Taxes for Energy-Intensive Users

Part II: Support of electricity production from renewable energy sources is normally compatible with the internal market. Reduction of taxes on electricity used by energy-intensive industries is allowed only for certain sectors exposed to international trade and only when they bear a certain cost. Taxes on imported electricity normally infringe free-trade and non-discrimination provisions, unless commensurate benefits are extended to […]

An Important Project of Common European Interest

Infrastructure projects which are economic in nature are subject to State aid scrutiny regardless of their importance. However, public funding of transport networks which are open to all users does not constitute State aid. Introduction State aid approval of important projects of common European interest is very rare. The joint Commission decisions SA.36558 and SA.38371 [Denmark] and SA.36662 [Sweden] concerning the […]

- Article 107(3)(b) ×

The Problem of Multiple Awards of Aid to the Undertaking and to the Same Group

Multiple awards of aid to the same undertaking are allowed as long as they cover different costs. Multiple awards of aid to the same group are allowed as long as aid does not leak from one undertaking in the group to another. Introduction In the first half of 2021, the General Court ruled in ten cases of appeal lodged by […]

Individual Aid Measures to Combat Covid-19

Aid to remedy a serious economic disturbance may be granted to a single company that is important for the national economy. EU law does not extend to competitors a right to the same aid. Introduction Between March 2020 and April 2021, the European Commission has authorised aid totalling more than EUR 2.5 trillion to remedy the serious economic disturbance caused […]

The Pan-European Guarantee Fund: The First State Aid Instrument at EU Level

The Fund managed by the EIB constitutes State aid granted collectively by participating Member States. Introduction One of the many responses of the European Union to the economic harm wreaked by the pandemic was the establishment of the Pan-European Guarantee Fund [the Fund] by the European Investment Bank. Member States were invited to contribute to the Fund. This is both […]

State Aid May be Limited to Undertakings with Close Links with the National Economy (Part II)

State aid may be used to compensate airlines licensed by domestic authorities for losses incurred as a result of national travel restrictions. [In case you have missed part I, you can access it here.] Introduction The European Commission acted swiftly to adopt a fairly accommodating and wide-ranging “Temporary Framework” to regulate State aid for the purposes of counter-acting the impact […]

State Aid May be Limited to Undertakings with Close Links with the National Economy (Part I)

State aid may be used to compensate airlines licensed by domestic authorities for losses incurred as a result of national travel restrictions. Introduction The European Commission acted swiftly to adopt a fairly accommodating and wide-ranging “Temporary Framework” to regulate State aid for the purposes of counter-acting the impact of covid-19. The Temporary Framework was welcomed by both Member States and […]

i) Investor-State Arbitration ii) Recovery of Incompatible State Aid iii) State Aid Scoreboard 2019

Euromünzen
Member States abolish bilateral investment treaties between themselves. When the Commission orders recovery of incompatible State aid, interest has to be added to the recoverable amount for the whole period of illegality regardless of any national limitation rules. In 2018, Member States granted EUR 121 billion to industry and services, EUR 6.3 billion to agriculture and EUR 50 billion to […]

No New Aid to Undertakings that Have not Yet Repaid Incompatible Aid

Money in Hands
There is no rule in EU law obliging Member States to grant State aid. The European Commission may refuse to authorise aid until previous aid that was found to be incompatible with the internal market is paid back. Temporary Framework: Number of approved covid-19 measures, as of 16 May 2020: 125* Legal basis: Article 107(2)(b): 10; Article 107(3)(b): 105; Article […]

How to Make Good the Damage Caused by a Natural Disaster

Compensation for costs incurred as a result of a natural disaster is State aid. The compensation must be for damage directly caused by the natural disaster. Introduction State aid to make good the damage caused by an “exceptional occurrence” such as the corona virus covid-19 is compatible with the internal market. The legal basis for exemption is Article 107(2)(b). Of […]

A New Temporary State aid Framework to Fight the Effects of the Corona Virus

corona virus poster
Member States will be allowed to provide grants, guarantees and loans to companies to alleviate the effects of the corona virus. Introduction At the end of 2009, the European Commission adopted a Temporary Framework of State aid rules to enable Member States to support companies that were harmed by the outbreak of the financial crisis in 2008. Now, the corona […]

PART II: Green Electricity and Reduction of Energy Taxes for Energy-Intensive Users

Part II: Support of electricity production from renewable energy sources is normally compatible with the internal market. Reduction of taxes on electricity used by energy-intensive industries is allowed only for certain sectors exposed to international trade and only when they bear a certain cost. Taxes on imported electricity normally infringe free-trade and non-discrimination provisions, unless commensurate benefits are extended to […]

An Important Project of Common European Interest

Infrastructure projects which are economic in nature are subject to State aid scrutiny regardless of their importance. However, public funding of transport networks which are open to all users does not constitute State aid. Introduction State aid approval of important projects of common European interest is very rare. The joint Commission decisions SA.36558 and SA.38371 [Denmark] and SA.36662 [Sweden] concerning the […]

- Article 107(3)(b) ×

The Problem of Multiple Awards of Aid to the Undertaking and to the Same Group

Multiple awards of aid to the same undertaking are allowed as long as they cover different costs. Multiple awards of aid to the same group are allowed as long as aid does not leak from one undertaking in the group to another. Introduction In the first half of 2021, the General Court ruled in ten cases of appeal lodged by […]

Individual Aid Measures to Combat Covid-19

Aid to remedy a serious economic disturbance may be granted to a single company that is important for the national economy. EU law does not extend to competitors a right to the same aid. Introduction Between March 2020 and April 2021, the European Commission has authorised aid totalling more than EUR 2.5 trillion to remedy the serious economic disturbance caused […]

The Pan-European Guarantee Fund: The First State Aid Instrument at EU Level

The Fund managed by the EIB constitutes State aid granted collectively by participating Member States. Introduction One of the many responses of the European Union to the economic harm wreaked by the pandemic was the establishment of the Pan-European Guarantee Fund [the Fund] by the European Investment Bank. Member States were invited to contribute to the Fund. This is both […]

State Aid May be Limited to Undertakings with Close Links with the National Economy (Part II)

State aid may be used to compensate airlines licensed by domestic authorities for losses incurred as a result of national travel restrictions. [In case you have missed part I, you can access it here.] Introduction The European Commission acted swiftly to adopt a fairly accommodating and wide-ranging “Temporary Framework” to regulate State aid for the purposes of counter-acting the impact […]

State Aid May be Limited to Undertakings with Close Links with the National Economy (Part I)

State aid may be used to compensate airlines licensed by domestic authorities for losses incurred as a result of national travel restrictions. Introduction The European Commission acted swiftly to adopt a fairly accommodating and wide-ranging “Temporary Framework” to regulate State aid for the purposes of counter-acting the impact of covid-19. The Temporary Framework was welcomed by both Member States and […]

i) Investor-State Arbitration ii) Recovery of Incompatible State Aid iii) State Aid Scoreboard 2019

Euromünzen
Member States abolish bilateral investment treaties between themselves. When the Commission orders recovery of incompatible State aid, interest has to be added to the recoverable amount for the whole period of illegality regardless of any national limitation rules. In 2018, Member States granted EUR 121 billion to industry and services, EUR 6.3 billion to agriculture and EUR 50 billion to […]

No New Aid to Undertakings that Have not Yet Repaid Incompatible Aid

Money in Hands
There is no rule in EU law obliging Member States to grant State aid. The European Commission may refuse to authorise aid until previous aid that was found to be incompatible with the internal market is paid back. Temporary Framework: Number of approved covid-19 measures, as of 16 May 2020: 125* Legal basis: Article 107(2)(b): 10; Article 107(3)(b): 105; Article […]

How to Make Good the Damage Caused by a Natural Disaster

Compensation for costs incurred as a result of a natural disaster is State aid. The compensation must be for damage directly caused by the natural disaster. Introduction State aid to make good the damage caused by an “exceptional occurrence” such as the corona virus covid-19 is compatible with the internal market. The legal basis for exemption is Article 107(2)(b). Of […]

A New Temporary State aid Framework to Fight the Effects of the Corona Virus

corona virus poster
Member States will be allowed to provide grants, guarantees and loans to companies to alleviate the effects of the corona virus. Introduction At the end of 2009, the European Commission adopted a Temporary Framework of State aid rules to enable Member States to support companies that were harmed by the outbreak of the financial crisis in 2008. Now, the corona […]

PART II: Green Electricity and Reduction of Energy Taxes for Energy-Intensive Users

Part II: Support of electricity production from renewable energy sources is normally compatible with the internal market. Reduction of taxes on electricity used by energy-intensive industries is allowed only for certain sectors exposed to international trade and only when they bear a certain cost. Taxes on imported electricity normally infringe free-trade and non-discrimination provisions, unless commensurate benefits are extended to […]

An Important Project of Common European Interest

Infrastructure projects which are economic in nature are subject to State aid scrutiny regardless of their importance. However, public funding of transport networks which are open to all users does not constitute State aid. Introduction State aid approval of important projects of common European interest is very rare. The joint Commission decisions SA.36558 and SA.38371 [Denmark] and SA.36662 [Sweden] concerning the […]

How to Submit a Blog Post

Do you want to share your analysis of a State aid law topic? We invite you to submit your post on, for example: recent European, national or international judgments or legislation with relevance to EU State aid law; new developments, publications, hot topics in EU State aid law. The recommended length of the post is 500-2,000 words incl. references (endnotes). Your analysis will be published under the category ‘Guest State Aid Blog’.

Here’s how you can publish a post on the Blog as a guest author:

Step 1: Submit your draft post as a Word file to stateaidhub[a]lexxion.eu.

Step 2: The StateAidHub team will review your draft to make sure its content and quality fit the blog. If needed, they will suggest what improvements you should make.

Step 3: Once your draft has been finalised and accepted, we will send you a link to register and log-in to the Blog as a guest author.

Step 4: Once you have logged-in to the blog, you can upload and publish your post.

Step 5: Enjoy the fame!

Submit your guest blog post

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