State Aid Law Blog

State Aid Uncovered Blog

On a weekly basis Phedon Nicolaides posts critical analysis pieces on the latest State aid judgments and decisions on his blog State Aid Uncovered. Each article presents the main points of a court ruling or Commission‘s decision, places them in the context of similar case law or practice, assesses the underlying reasoning, and identifies any inconsistencies or contradictions.
Occasional guest blog posts by other State aid experts complement the State aid knowledge hub.

Join the debate now!

Professor at Maastricht University; Professor at University of Nicosia, and Academic Director at Lexxion Training

- market operator ×

Recovery of Incompatible Aid in an Agreement between an Airport and an Airline

Introduction On 23 November 2023, the Court of Justice, in case C-758/21 P, Ryanair v European Commission, rejected Ryanair’s action against the judgment of the General Court in case T-448/18, Ryanair v European Commission.1 In its judgment, the General Court dismissed Ryanair’s appeal against Commission decision 2018/628. In that decision, the Commission found, among other things, that Austria had granted […]

PART II: Concessions and State Aid: Does the State Act as a Regulator or Market Operator?

When Member States act as regulators they need not maximise revenue from the granting of concessions rights. When Member States act as regulators they must grant concession rights on the basis of procedures which are competitive, transparent, non-discriminatory and unconditional.   Part II: Public procurement principles[1] Principles for selection of concession holders The Commission examined also, in addition to the […]

PART I: Concessions and State Aid: Does the State Act as a Regulator or Market Operator?

When Member States act as regulators they need not maximise revenue from the granting of concessions rights. When Member States act as regulators they must grant concession rights on the basis of procedures which are competitive, transparent, non-discriminatory and unconditional. Introduction   Is it possible for a public authority to grant State aid through a defective procurement procedure? The answer […]

Odysseus and the Sirens: A Rational Market Operator Can Agree to be Bound by the Ruling of an Arbitration Tribunal

A rational market operator can agree to arbitration if there is no reasonable prospect of a better outcome. However, a rational operator would ensure that the terms according to which an arbitration decision can be taken would be defined in advance and would not be prejudicial to the operator.   Introduction Is it rational for a market operator to agree […]

A Market Operator, unlike a Public Authority, Does not Have to Treat all Customers Equally

In managing infrastructure, a public authority acts as a private operator when it seeks a reasonable return on its investment and also takes into account the alternative of not operating the infrastructure. The manager of an infrastructural project may charge different fees to different users to optimise usage and increase revenue.   Introduction This article reviews Commission decision 2015/506 concerning […]

- market operator ×

Recovery of Incompatible Aid in an Agreement between an Airport and an Airline

Introduction On 23 November 2023, the Court of Justice, in case C-758/21 P, Ryanair v European Commission, rejected Ryanair’s action against the judgment of the General Court in case T-448/18, Ryanair v European Commission.1 In its judgment, the General Court dismissed Ryanair’s appeal against Commission decision 2018/628. In that decision, the Commission found, among other things, that Austria had granted […]

PART II: Concessions and State Aid: Does the State Act as a Regulator or Market Operator?

When Member States act as regulators they need not maximise revenue from the granting of concessions rights. When Member States act as regulators they must grant concession rights on the basis of procedures which are competitive, transparent, non-discriminatory and unconditional.   Part II: Public procurement principles[1] Principles for selection of concession holders The Commission examined also, in addition to the […]

PART I: Concessions and State Aid: Does the State Act as a Regulator or Market Operator?

When Member States act as regulators they need not maximise revenue from the granting of concessions rights. When Member States act as regulators they must grant concession rights on the basis of procedures which are competitive, transparent, non-discriminatory and unconditional. Introduction   Is it possible for a public authority to grant State aid through a defective procurement procedure? The answer […]

Odysseus and the Sirens: A Rational Market Operator Can Agree to be Bound by the Ruling of an Arbitration Tribunal

A rational market operator can agree to arbitration if there is no reasonable prospect of a better outcome. However, a rational operator would ensure that the terms according to which an arbitration decision can be taken would be defined in advance and would not be prejudicial to the operator.   Introduction Is it rational for a market operator to agree […]

A Market Operator, unlike a Public Authority, Does not Have to Treat all Customers Equally

In managing infrastructure, a public authority acts as a private operator when it seeks a reasonable return on its investment and also takes into account the alternative of not operating the infrastructure. The manager of an infrastructural project may charge different fees to different users to optimise usage and increase revenue.   Introduction This article reviews Commission decision 2015/506 concerning […]

- market operator ×

Recovery of Incompatible Aid in an Agreement between an Airport and an Airline

Introduction On 23 November 2023, the Court of Justice, in case C-758/21 P, Ryanair v European Commission, rejected Ryanair’s action against the judgment of the General Court in case T-448/18, Ryanair v European Commission.1 In its judgment, the General Court dismissed Ryanair’s appeal against Commission decision 2018/628. In that decision, the Commission found, among other things, that Austria had granted […]

PART II: Concessions and State Aid: Does the State Act as a Regulator or Market Operator?

When Member States act as regulators they need not maximise revenue from the granting of concessions rights. When Member States act as regulators they must grant concession rights on the basis of procedures which are competitive, transparent, non-discriminatory and unconditional.   Part II: Public procurement principles[1] Principles for selection of concession holders The Commission examined also, in addition to the […]

PART I: Concessions and State Aid: Does the State Act as a Regulator or Market Operator?

When Member States act as regulators they need not maximise revenue from the granting of concessions rights. When Member States act as regulators they must grant concession rights on the basis of procedures which are competitive, transparent, non-discriminatory and unconditional. Introduction   Is it possible for a public authority to grant State aid through a defective procurement procedure? The answer […]

Odysseus and the Sirens: A Rational Market Operator Can Agree to be Bound by the Ruling of an Arbitration Tribunal

A rational market operator can agree to arbitration if there is no reasonable prospect of a better outcome. However, a rational operator would ensure that the terms according to which an arbitration decision can be taken would be defined in advance and would not be prejudicial to the operator.   Introduction Is it rational for a market operator to agree […]

A Market Operator, unlike a Public Authority, Does not Have to Treat all Customers Equally

In managing infrastructure, a public authority acts as a private operator when it seeks a reasonable return on its investment and also takes into account the alternative of not operating the infrastructure. The manager of an infrastructural project may charge different fees to different users to optimise usage and increase revenue.   Introduction This article reviews Commission decision 2015/506 concerning […]

How to Submit a Blog Post

Do you want to share your analysis of a State aid law topic? We invite you to submit your post on, for example: recent European, national or international judgments or legislation with relevance to EU State aid law; new developments, publications, hot topics in EU State aid law. The recommended length of the post is 500-2,000 words incl. references (endnotes). Your analysis will be published under the category ‘Guest State Aid Blog’.

Here’s how you can publish a post on the Blog as a guest author:

Step 1: Submit your draft to Nelly Stratieva at stratieva@lexxion.eu.

Step 2: We at Lexxion will review your draft to make sure its content and quality fit the blog. If needed, they will suggest what improvements you should make.

Step 3: Once your draft has been finalised and accepted, we will publish your post.

Submit your guest blog post

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