State Aid Law Blog

State Aid Uncovered by Prof Phedon Nicolaides

On a weekly basis Phedon Nicolaides posts critical analysis pieces on the latest State aid judgments and decisions on his blog State Aid Uncovered. Each article presents the main points of a court ruling or Commission‘s decision, places them in the context of similar case law or practice, assesses the underlying reasoning, and identifies any inconsistencies or contradictions.
Occasional guest blog posts by other State aid experts complement the State aid knowledge hub.

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Professor at Maastricht University; Professor at University of Nicosia, and Academic Director at Lexxion Training

- Compensation for damage ×

Compensation for Damage Caused by COVID-19 May be Limited to the Undertakings that Are Most Important to the Economy of a Member Stat

Introduction On 23 November 2023, Ryanair lost another appeal before the Court of Justice. The Court ruled, in case C-210/21 P, Ryanair v Commission, that the General Court was right to dismiss Ryanair’s request for annulment of a Commission decision that had authorised French aid to compensate airlines for the damage they suffered as a result of the covid-19-related travel […]

Compensation for Damage

Introduction On 9 November 2022, the General Court followed its previous judgments in cases concerning compensation for damage caused by the covid-19 pandemic to rule, in case T-111/21, Ryanair v European Commission, that Member States were free to choose to whom to grant State aid.[1] Ryanair had sought the annulment of Commission decision SA.55373 concerning damage compensation to Croatia Airlines […]

The Problem of Multiple Awards of Aid to the Undertaking and to the Same Group

Multiple awards of aid to the same undertaking are allowed as long as they cover different costs. Multiple awards of aid to the same group are allowed as long as aid does not leak from one undertaking in the group to another. Introduction In the first half of 2021, the General Court ruled in ten cases of appeal lodged by […]

Disentangling the Impact of Covid-19 from other Business Problems

State aid may only compensate for the direct damage caused by covid-19. Introduction Aid that compensates for damage caused by natural disasters or exceptional occurrences is declared by Article 107(2)(b) TFEU to be compatible with the internal market. That is why Article 1(4)(c) of the GBER does not exclude, as is normally the practice, undertakings in difficulty from schemes that […]

Individual Aid Measures to Combat Covid-19

Aid to remedy a serious economic disturbance may be granted to a single company that is important for the national economy. EU law does not extend to competitors a right to the same aid. Introduction Between March 2020 and April 2021, the European Commission has authorised aid totalling more than EUR 2.5 trillion to remedy the serious economic disturbance caused […]

How to Make Good the Damage Caused by a Natural Disaster

Compensation for costs incurred as a result of a natural disaster is State aid. The compensation must be for damage directly caused by the natural disaster. Introduction State aid to make good the damage caused by an “exceptional occurrence” such as the corona virus covid-19 is compatible with the internal market. The legal basis for exemption is Article 107(2)(b). Of […]

Compensation for Public Service Obligations and Compensation for Damage

Compensation for public service obligations is compatible with the internal market when, at minimum, a PSO is well defined in an entrustment constituting an official act of a public authority, the revenues and costs of the PSO are clearly identified and separated from other commercial activities and the compensation does not exceed the net extra costs of the PSO. Compensation […]

- Compensation for damage ×

Compensation for Damage Caused by COVID-19 May be Limited to the Undertakings that Are Most Important to the Economy of a Member Stat

Introduction On 23 November 2023, Ryanair lost another appeal before the Court of Justice. The Court ruled, in case C-210/21 P, Ryanair v Commission, that the General Court was right to dismiss Ryanair’s request for annulment of a Commission decision that had authorised French aid to compensate airlines for the damage they suffered as a result of the covid-19-related travel […]

Compensation for Damage

Introduction On 9 November 2022, the General Court followed its previous judgments in cases concerning compensation for damage caused by the covid-19 pandemic to rule, in case T-111/21, Ryanair v European Commission, that Member States were free to choose to whom to grant State aid.[1] Ryanair had sought the annulment of Commission decision SA.55373 concerning damage compensation to Croatia Airlines […]

The Problem of Multiple Awards of Aid to the Undertaking and to the Same Group

Multiple awards of aid to the same undertaking are allowed as long as they cover different costs. Multiple awards of aid to the same group are allowed as long as aid does not leak from one undertaking in the group to another. Introduction In the first half of 2021, the General Court ruled in ten cases of appeal lodged by […]

Disentangling the Impact of Covid-19 from other Business Problems

State aid may only compensate for the direct damage caused by covid-19. Introduction Aid that compensates for damage caused by natural disasters or exceptional occurrences is declared by Article 107(2)(b) TFEU to be compatible with the internal market. That is why Article 1(4)(c) of the GBER does not exclude, as is normally the practice, undertakings in difficulty from schemes that […]

Individual Aid Measures to Combat Covid-19

Aid to remedy a serious economic disturbance may be granted to a single company that is important for the national economy. EU law does not extend to competitors a right to the same aid. Introduction Between March 2020 and April 2021, the European Commission has authorised aid totalling more than EUR 2.5 trillion to remedy the serious economic disturbance caused […]

How to Make Good the Damage Caused by a Natural Disaster

Compensation for costs incurred as a result of a natural disaster is State aid. The compensation must be for damage directly caused by the natural disaster. Introduction State aid to make good the damage caused by an “exceptional occurrence” such as the corona virus covid-19 is compatible with the internal market. The legal basis for exemption is Article 107(2)(b). Of […]

Compensation for Public Service Obligations and Compensation for Damage

Compensation for public service obligations is compatible with the internal market when, at minimum, a PSO is well defined in an entrustment constituting an official act of a public authority, the revenues and costs of the PSO are clearly identified and separated from other commercial activities and the compensation does not exceed the net extra costs of the PSO. Compensation […]

- Compensation for damage ×

Compensation for Damage Caused by COVID-19 May be Limited to the Undertakings that Are Most Important to the Economy of a Member Stat

Introduction On 23 November 2023, Ryanair lost another appeal before the Court of Justice. The Court ruled, in case C-210/21 P, Ryanair v Commission, that the General Court was right to dismiss Ryanair’s request for annulment of a Commission decision that had authorised French aid to compensate airlines for the damage they suffered as a result of the covid-19-related travel […]

Compensation for Damage

Introduction On 9 November 2022, the General Court followed its previous judgments in cases concerning compensation for damage caused by the covid-19 pandemic to rule, in case T-111/21, Ryanair v European Commission, that Member States were free to choose to whom to grant State aid.[1] Ryanair had sought the annulment of Commission decision SA.55373 concerning damage compensation to Croatia Airlines […]

The Problem of Multiple Awards of Aid to the Undertaking and to the Same Group

Multiple awards of aid to the same undertaking are allowed as long as they cover different costs. Multiple awards of aid to the same group are allowed as long as aid does not leak from one undertaking in the group to another. Introduction In the first half of 2021, the General Court ruled in ten cases of appeal lodged by […]

Disentangling the Impact of Covid-19 from other Business Problems

State aid may only compensate for the direct damage caused by covid-19. Introduction Aid that compensates for damage caused by natural disasters or exceptional occurrences is declared by Article 107(2)(b) TFEU to be compatible with the internal market. That is why Article 1(4)(c) of the GBER does not exclude, as is normally the practice, undertakings in difficulty from schemes that […]

Individual Aid Measures to Combat Covid-19

Aid to remedy a serious economic disturbance may be granted to a single company that is important for the national economy. EU law does not extend to competitors a right to the same aid. Introduction Between March 2020 and April 2021, the European Commission has authorised aid totalling more than EUR 2.5 trillion to remedy the serious economic disturbance caused […]

How to Make Good the Damage Caused by a Natural Disaster

Compensation for costs incurred as a result of a natural disaster is State aid. The compensation must be for damage directly caused by the natural disaster. Introduction State aid to make good the damage caused by an “exceptional occurrence” such as the corona virus covid-19 is compatible with the internal market. The legal basis for exemption is Article 107(2)(b). Of […]

Compensation for Public Service Obligations and Compensation for Damage

Compensation for public service obligations is compatible with the internal market when, at minimum, a PSO is well defined in an entrustment constituting an official act of a public authority, the revenues and costs of the PSO are clearly identified and separated from other commercial activities and the compensation does not exceed the net extra costs of the PSO. Compensation […]

How to Submit a Blog Post

Do you want to share your analysis of a State aid law topic? We invite you to submit your post on, for example: recent European, national or international judgments or legislation with relevance to EU State aid law; new developments, publications, hot topics in EU State aid law. The recommended length of the post is 500-2,000 words incl. references (endnotes). Your analysis will be published under the category ‘Guest State Aid Blog’.

Here’s how you can publish a post on the Blog as a guest author:

Step 1: Submit your draft to Nelly Stratieva at [email protected].

Step 2: We at Lexxion will review your draft to make sure its content and quality fit the blog. If needed, they will suggest what improvements you should make.

Step 3: Once your draft has been finalised and accepted, we will publish your post.

Submit your guest blog post

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