References to books and published reports should be made in the following manner:
>author’s first name and last name (name of all authors; if more than 4 authors, list 3 authors then et al.)<, >book title< (in italics), >edition or number of volume< (if applicable), >(place: publisher and year of publication)< (in parentheses), at p. >page number< (or for several pages pp. >page numbers<, followed by et sqq. if needed).
Example: Patricia Birnie and Alan Boyle, International Law and the Environment, 2nd ed. (Oxford: Oxford University Press 2002), at p. 24.
References to contributions in edited volumes should be made as follows:
>author’s first name and last name<, “>article title<”, in >editor’s/editors’ first name and last name/s< (ed./eds.), >volume title< (in italics), >(place: publisher and year of publication)< (in parentheses), pp. >starting page number< et sqq., at p. >cited page number<.
Example: Kyle Danish, “The International Regime”, in Michael Gerrard (ed.), Global Climate
Change and U.S. Law (Chicago: ABA, 2007), pp. 31 et sqq., at p. 34.
Journal Articles should be referenced as follows:
>author’s first and last name<, “>article title<”, >journal volume, title (in italics) and year (in parentheses)<, pp. >starting page number< et sqq., at p. >cited page number<.
Example: David Freestone and Charlotte Streck, “The Challenges of Implementing the Kyoto Mechanisms”, 15 Environmental Liability (2007), pp. 47 et sqq., at p. 48.
Commonly used journal titles can be abbreviated.
Example: Francesco Sindico, “Climate Change – A Security (Council) Issue?”, 1 CCLR
(2007), pp.29 et sqq., at p. 33.
Unpublished Theses and Presentations
References to unpublished theses should be made in the following manner:
>author’s first name and last name (name of all authors; if more than 4 authors, list 3 authors then et al.)<,>“thesis title”<, >Ph.D./LL.M./M.Sc.< thesis on file at the University of >university name<, >year of defense< (in parentheses), at p. >page number< (or for several pages pp. >page numbers<, followed by et sqq. if needed).
Example: Nick Farnsworth, “European Emissions Trading: State Aid and WTO” (LL.M. thesis on file at the University of Leuven, 2004), p. 15.
References to presentations should be made as follows:
>presenter’s first name and last name<, “>presentation title<”, presentation held at >name of event, place, date<.
Example: Konrad Ott, “The Objective of a Sustainable Energy Policy from an Ethical
Perspective”, presentation held at the Summer Academy “Energy and the Environment”,
Greifswald, 5 July 2004.
Newspaper Articles, Other News Items
References to newspaper articles and other news items should be made as follows:
>author’s first name and last name<, “>news item title<”, >newspaper title or name of news
source<, >date<, at p. >cited page number<.
Example: John Friedman, “The Crisis in Bolivia”, New York Times, 17 March 2005, at p. A2.
References to Internet sources should be as follows:
>Author’s first name and last name (name of all authors; if more than 4 authors, list 3 authors
then et al.)<, >“title”<, >date or year<, available on the Internet at: >< (last accessed on >date<) (in parentheses).
Example: ICAO, “ICAO’s Policies on Taxation in the Field of International Air Transport”, 31
December 2006, available on the Internet at
<www.icao.int/cgi/goto_m.pl?icaonet/dcs/8632.html> (last accessed on 25 March 2008).
International Documents and Legislation
Example: Kyoto Protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change,
Kyoto, 10 December 1997, in force 16 February 2005, 37 International Legal Materials
(1998), pp. 22 et sqq.
United Nations Documents
Example: Decision 1/CMP.1, Consideration of Commitments for Subsequent Periods for
Parties included in Annex I to the Convention under Article 3, Paragraph 9, of the Kyoto
Protocol, UN Doc. FCCC/KP/CMP/2005/8/Add.1, 30 March 2006.
Gabčikovo-Nagymaros Project (Hungary/Slovakia), Judgment, 25 September 1997, ICJ
Reports (1997), pp. 1 et sqq., at p. 75.
United States – Import Prohibition of Certain Shrimp and Shrimp Products, Report of the
Appellate Body, WTO Doc. WT/DS58/AB/R, 6 November 1998, at p. 153.
European Union Documents and Legislation
Example: Case C-179/90, Merci convenzionali porto di Genova  ECR I-5889, at para. 57.
Opinion of Advocate-General
Example: Opinion of Advocate-General Tizzano in Case C-53/00, Ferring v ACOSS  ECR I-9067, paras. 18-22.
Example: Commission Regulation (EC) No 69/2001 on the Application of Articles 87 and 88 of the EC Treaty to De Minimis Aid, OJ 2001 L 10/30.
Example: Council Directive 75/439/EEC on the Disposal of Waste Oils, OJ 1975 L 194/23.
Example: Commission Decision Concerning Alleged State Aids Granted by France to SFM-
Chronopost, OJ 1998 L 164/37.
Example: Commission Proposal for a Directive of the European Parliament and of the Council Amending Directive 2003/87/EC so as to Improve and Extend the Greenhouse Gas Emission Allowance Trading System of the Community, COM(2008)16, at p. 13.
Domestic Documents and Legislation
Reference domestic documents and legislation using the accepted style in the country in
question; where in doubt, apply the same principles reflected in the foregoing guidelines.
Subsequent references to a source already given in full should take a shortened form. A shortened reference includes only the last name of the author and the short title of the book or article (containing the key word or words from the main title, so as to make the reference easily recognizable and not to be confused with any other work), followed by a cross-reference (supra
or infra) to the location of the full reference and the page number of the reference.
Krämer, E.C. Environmental Law, supra note 15, at p. 68.
Lefevere, “Emissions Allowance Trading”, supra note 12, at p. 176.
Kyoto Protocol, supra note 23, Art. 12.
V. Abbreviations and Style Points
In the text, the following abbreviations may be used:
– et sqq.
– et al.
Only in footnotes, the following abbreviations must be used:
– (ed.) but (eds.)
– Preceding preferences should be cited as “supra, note 90”.
– “Ibid.” should only refer to immediately preceding preferences.
Style points :
– “%” instead of “per cent”
– “$”, “€”, “£” instead of “Dollar”, “Euro”, “Pound” etc.
– “Judgment” instead of “Judgement”
– “Article” instead of “Art.”