Europäisches Beihilfenrecht Blog

State Aid Uncovered Blog

In Lexxions Blog „State Aid Uncovered” veröffentlicht Prof. Phedon Nicolaides wöchentlich kritische Analysen zu den neuesten Urteilen und Entscheidungen zu staatlichen Beihilfen. Jeder Beitrag stellt die wichtigsten Punkte eines Gerichtsurteils oder einer EU-Kommissionsentscheidung vor, ordnet sie in den Kontext ähnlicher Rechtsprechung oder Praxis ein, bewertet die zugrundeliegende Argumentation und zeigt etwaige Ungereimtheiten oder Widersprüche auf.

In loser Folge werden auf diesem Blog auch Gastbeiträge von anderen Experten für staatliche Beihilfen veröffentlicht, welche die Inhalte der Blogbeiträge ergänzen.

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Professor at Maastricht University; Professor at University of Nicosia, and Academic Director at Lexxion Training

- State Resources ×

Security of Energy Supply

Guaranteed supply of electricity at fixed prices to a state-owned network operator involves a transfer of state resources to the supplier. Guaranteed supply of electricity at fixed prices confers an advantage to the supplier. Introduction Member States are allowed to take measures to ensure the security of energy supplies. There is a variety of such measures: imposition of obligations on […]

Compensatory Payments and State Resources

Funds used in compensation mechanisms mandated by the state become state resources Introduction The Court of Justice has stressed repeatedly that any resource over which the state can exercise control becomes a state resource, regardless of whether it is managed by a public authority or a private entity. Member States, however, keep inventing novel and complicated arrangements in which mandated […]

Legitimate Expectations and the “Right” to State Aid

Legitimate expectations can only be created by EU institutions giving unambiguous and unconditional assurances. No undertaking enjoys a right to State aid. Member States may reduce the amount of State aid they grant. Introduction As the process of transition to green economy accelerates, Member States have been reducing the subsidies they promised to grant to the early investors in the […]

When Do Legal Exemptions Constitute State Aid?

Exemption from a fine does not constitute State aid when it is based on transparent and pre-determined criteria. Infringement of EU law determines the compatibility of State aid, not the existence of State aid. Introduction An exemption from legal requirements that confers a selective advantage does not necessarily amount to State aid. In most cases, when beneficiaries are found not […]

Exclusive Rights and State Aid

Exclusive rights may constitute State aid if they mandate payments with resources over which the state can exercise control. Compensation for the cost of public service obligations may be granted only if the obligations are clear and define a service that is different from market services. Introduction Article 106(1) TFEU requires Member States not to distort competition when they grant […]

Can the Decision of a Private Entity be Imputed to the State?

A measure is imputable to the state whenever the state is involved in its adoption or shapes the decision that leads to its adoption. Introduction One of the trickiest aspects of determining whether a financial transaction involves State aid is its attribution or imputation to a decision of the state, especially when the entity providing the funding is private. Private […]

Training and State Resources

The definition of quality indicators and the establishment of certificates of quality do not amount to control by the state over the resources belonging to non-state entities. Introduction Consider the case of a public university which decides to finance the proposal of one of its researchers to launch a research project in collaboration with a private company. For sure the […]

Attribution to the State does not necessarily Imply Control by the State

Prices fixed by the state do not necessarily confer control to the state over the private resources which are used to pay those prices. Introduction Judging from how many times EU courts have been asked to interpret the concept of state resources, it seems that one of the most difficult aspects of Article 107(1) TFEU is to determine whether funding […]

State Control without State Imputability

A snapshot of Covid-19 State aid Number of Covid-19 approved measures1, 2 [EU27 + UK, 4 September 2020] 19-15 13-11 9-7 6-4 BE CZ DK IT PL DE FR HU LV NL BG EL FI IE LT LU MT RO SE SK UK AT CY EE ES HR PT SI Source: DG Competition, author’s own calculations 1: Data exclude amendments […]

2019 Competition Report

The Annual Competition Report is a useful document, but it should provide more information on the results of the ex post evaluations and ex post monitoring. Update on Temporary Framework: Number of approved and published COVID-19 measures, as of 10 July 2020: 202* Legal basis: Article 107(2)(b): 20; Article 107(3)(b): 171; Article 107(3)(c): 17 Six Member States have implemented 11 […]

- State Resources ×

Security of Energy Supply

Guaranteed supply of electricity at fixed prices to a state-owned network operator involves a transfer of state resources to the supplier. Guaranteed supply of electricity at fixed prices confers an advantage to the supplier. Introduction Member States are allowed to take measures to ensure the security of energy supplies. There is a variety of such measures: imposition of obligations on […]

Compensatory Payments and State Resources

Funds used in compensation mechanisms mandated by the state become state resources Introduction The Court of Justice has stressed repeatedly that any resource over which the state can exercise control becomes a state resource, regardless of whether it is managed by a public authority or a private entity. Member States, however, keep inventing novel and complicated arrangements in which mandated […]

Legitimate Expectations and the “Right” to State Aid

Legitimate expectations can only be created by EU institutions giving unambiguous and unconditional assurances. No undertaking enjoys a right to State aid. Member States may reduce the amount of State aid they grant. Introduction As the process of transition to green economy accelerates, Member States have been reducing the subsidies they promised to grant to the early investors in the […]

When Do Legal Exemptions Constitute State Aid?

Exemption from a fine does not constitute State aid when it is based on transparent and pre-determined criteria. Infringement of EU law determines the compatibility of State aid, not the existence of State aid. Introduction An exemption from legal requirements that confers a selective advantage does not necessarily amount to State aid. In most cases, when beneficiaries are found not […]

Exclusive Rights and State Aid

Exclusive rights may constitute State aid if they mandate payments with resources over which the state can exercise control. Compensation for the cost of public service obligations may be granted only if the obligations are clear and define a service that is different from market services. Introduction Article 106(1) TFEU requires Member States not to distort competition when they grant […]

Can the Decision of a Private Entity be Imputed to the State?

A measure is imputable to the state whenever the state is involved in its adoption or shapes the decision that leads to its adoption. Introduction One of the trickiest aspects of determining whether a financial transaction involves State aid is its attribution or imputation to a decision of the state, especially when the entity providing the funding is private. Private […]

Training and State Resources

The definition of quality indicators and the establishment of certificates of quality do not amount to control by the state over the resources belonging to non-state entities. Introduction Consider the case of a public university which decides to finance the proposal of one of its researchers to launch a research project in collaboration with a private company. For sure the […]

Attribution to the State does not necessarily Imply Control by the State

Prices fixed by the state do not necessarily confer control to the state over the private resources which are used to pay those prices. Introduction Judging from how many times EU courts have been asked to interpret the concept of state resources, it seems that one of the most difficult aspects of Article 107(1) TFEU is to determine whether funding […]

State Control without State Imputability

A snapshot of Covid-19 State aid Number of Covid-19 approved measures1, 2 [EU27 + UK, 4 September 2020] 19-15 13-11 9-7 6-4 BE CZ DK IT PL DE FR HU LV NL BG EL FI IE LT LU MT RO SE SK UK AT CY EE ES HR PT SI Source: DG Competition, author’s own calculations 1: Data exclude amendments […]

2019 Competition Report

The Annual Competition Report is a useful document, but it should provide more information on the results of the ex post evaluations and ex post monitoring. Update on Temporary Framework: Number of approved and published COVID-19 measures, as of 10 July 2020: 202* Legal basis: Article 107(2)(b): 20; Article 107(3)(b): 171; Article 107(3)(c): 17 Six Member States have implemented 11 […]

- State Resources ×

Security of Energy Supply

Guaranteed supply of electricity at fixed prices to a state-owned network operator involves a transfer of state resources to the supplier. Guaranteed supply of electricity at fixed prices confers an advantage to the supplier. Introduction Member States are allowed to take measures to ensure the security of energy supplies. There is a variety of such measures: imposition of obligations on […]

Compensatory Payments and State Resources

Funds used in compensation mechanisms mandated by the state become state resources Introduction The Court of Justice has stressed repeatedly that any resource over which the state can exercise control becomes a state resource, regardless of whether it is managed by a public authority or a private entity. Member States, however, keep inventing novel and complicated arrangements in which mandated […]

Legitimate Expectations and the “Right” to State Aid

Legitimate expectations can only be created by EU institutions giving unambiguous and unconditional assurances. No undertaking enjoys a right to State aid. Member States may reduce the amount of State aid they grant. Introduction As the process of transition to green economy accelerates, Member States have been reducing the subsidies they promised to grant to the early investors in the […]

When Do Legal Exemptions Constitute State Aid?

Exemption from a fine does not constitute State aid when it is based on transparent and pre-determined criteria. Infringement of EU law determines the compatibility of State aid, not the existence of State aid. Introduction An exemption from legal requirements that confers a selective advantage does not necessarily amount to State aid. In most cases, when beneficiaries are found not […]

Exclusive Rights and State Aid

Exclusive rights may constitute State aid if they mandate payments with resources over which the state can exercise control. Compensation for the cost of public service obligations may be granted only if the obligations are clear and define a service that is different from market services. Introduction Article 106(1) TFEU requires Member States not to distort competition when they grant […]

Can the Decision of a Private Entity be Imputed to the State?

A measure is imputable to the state whenever the state is involved in its adoption or shapes the decision that leads to its adoption. Introduction One of the trickiest aspects of determining whether a financial transaction involves State aid is its attribution or imputation to a decision of the state, especially when the entity providing the funding is private. Private […]

Training and State Resources

The definition of quality indicators and the establishment of certificates of quality do not amount to control by the state over the resources belonging to non-state entities. Introduction Consider the case of a public university which decides to finance the proposal of one of its researchers to launch a research project in collaboration with a private company. For sure the […]

Attribution to the State does not necessarily Imply Control by the State

Prices fixed by the state do not necessarily confer control to the state over the private resources which are used to pay those prices. Introduction Judging from how many times EU courts have been asked to interpret the concept of state resources, it seems that one of the most difficult aspects of Article 107(1) TFEU is to determine whether funding […]

State Control without State Imputability

A snapshot of Covid-19 State aid Number of Covid-19 approved measures1, 2 [EU27 + UK, 4 September 2020] 19-15 13-11 9-7 6-4 BE CZ DK IT PL DE FR HU LV NL BG EL FI IE LT LU MT RO SE SK UK AT CY EE ES HR PT SI Source: DG Competition, author’s own calculations 1: Data exclude amendments […]

2019 Competition Report

The Annual Competition Report is a useful document, but it should provide more information on the results of the ex post evaluations and ex post monitoring. Update on Temporary Framework: Number of approved and published COVID-19 measures, as of 10 July 2020: 202* Legal basis: Article 107(2)(b): 20; Article 107(3)(b): 171; Article 107(3)(c): 17 Six Member States have implemented 11 […]

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