State Aid Law Blog

State Aid Uncovered Blog

On a weekly basis Phedon Nicolaides posts critical analysis pieces on the latest State aid judgments and decisions on his blog State Aid Uncovered. Each article presents the main points of a court ruling or Commission‘s decision, places them in the context of similar case law or practice, assesses the underlying reasoning, and identifies any inconsistencies or contradictions.
Occasional guest blog posts by other State aid experts complement the State aid knowledge hub.

Join the debate now!

Professor at Maastricht University; Professor at University of Nicosia, and Academic Director at Lexxion Training

The Court of Justice Conflates Objective Justification with Policy Objective, in the context of Public Support of Green Electricity

Introduction Suppose a Member State subsidises the installation of solar panels on the roof of a corporate building situated at number 5 on Main Street. Is this a general measure because there is no other building in the whole country with the same address? Of course, it is not a general measure. The uniqueness of the address is irrelevant. Apart […]

Applying the Funding Gap Method to an Important Project of Common European Interest – Part II

Introduction On 28 February 2024, the General Court delivered an important judgment in case T-390/20, Scandlines v Commission.(1) The judgment is important because it interpreted the Commission guidelines on Important Projects of Common European Interest [IPCEI], the funding gap methodology for determining the necessary amount of aid and the 2008 Commission Notice on state guarantees. Scandlines sought annulment of Commission […]

Applying the Funding Gap Method to an Important Project of Common European Interest – Part I

Introduction On 28 February 2024, the General Court delivered an important judgment in case T-390/20, Scandlines v Commission.(1) The judgment is important because it interpreted the Commission guidelines on Important Projects of Common European Interest [IPCEI], the funding gap methodology for determining the necessary amount of aid and the 2008 Commission Notice on state guarantees. Scandlines sought annulment of Commission […]

Public Infrastructure and State Prerogatives

Introduction On 28 February 2024, the General Court delivered two important judgments on the presence of State aid and its compatibility with the internal market in connection to public funding of the Fehmarn Fixed Link between Denmark and Germany. The Fixed Link is a major infrastructure project consisting of tunnels, bridges and access road and rail connections. The judgments of […]

State Aid and Arbitration of Disputes

Introduction On 22 February 2024, the Court of Justice [CJEU] delivered its judgment in joined Cases C-701/21 P and C-739/21 P, Mytilinaios v DEI & European Commission. Mytilinaios, a Greek company, and the Commission appealed against the judgment of the General Court in case T-639/14 RENV, DEI v Commission, concerning arbitration of a dispute between Mytilinaios and DEI, the main […]

A Large Regional Investment Project in Spain

Introduction Most State aid to “large” investment projects is granted by the Member States in Central and Eastern Europe. Moreover, most of the aid goes to induce companies to locate their projects in those countries and to overcome regional handicaps that make the investments less profitable or even loss-making than in other locations. By contrast, regional aid granted to large […]

Another Case of Indirect State Aid

Introduction On 19 May 2021, the General Court, in case T-643/20, Ryanair v Commission, annulled Commission decision SA.57116 by which it authorised State aid in favour of KLM in the context of the measures implemented by the Dutch government to address the covid-19 pandemic. In July 2021, the Commission re-adopted its original decision without the errors that had been identified […]

State Resources, Control and Imputability

Introduction A public measure can be classified as State aid only when it is funded from state resources. Measures funded from the budgets of public authorities are always considered to be supported by state resources. However, measures not funded from state budgets may still be supported by state resources. This is because, rather counterintuitively, the concept of state resources covers […]

Indirect Beneficiaries of State aid

Introduction The prohibition of State aid in Article 107(1) TFEU applies both to direct and indirect beneficiaries. The direct beneficiary is the formal recipient of the aid. However, the formal recipient may only act as an intermediary through which aid flows to third parties or may in fact be required by the aid measure to pass on some or most […]

Non-contractual Liability in the Field of State aid

Introduction The Commission, in its control of State aid, occasionally makes mistakes. EU courts may annul erroneous Commission decisions. This raises the question whether affected undertakings may ask for compensation. The answer is that in order to be eligible for compensation, an undertaking must have suffered damage as a result of an error that constitutes a “serious breach” of EU […]

The Court of Justice Conflates Objective Justification with Policy Objective, in the context of Public Support of Green Electricity

Introduction Suppose a Member State subsidises the installation of solar panels on the roof of a corporate building situated at number 5 on Main Street. Is this a general measure because there is no other building in the whole country with the same address? Of course, it is not a general measure. The uniqueness of the address is irrelevant. Apart […]

Applying the Funding Gap Method to an Important Project of Common European Interest – Part II

Introduction On 28 February 2024, the General Court delivered an important judgment in case T-390/20, Scandlines v Commission.(1) The judgment is important because it interpreted the Commission guidelines on Important Projects of Common European Interest [IPCEI], the funding gap methodology for determining the necessary amount of aid and the 2008 Commission Notice on state guarantees. Scandlines sought annulment of Commission […]

Public Infrastructure and State Prerogatives

Introduction On 28 February 2024, the General Court delivered two important judgments on the presence of State aid and its compatibility with the internal market in connection to public funding of the Fehmarn Fixed Link between Denmark and Germany. The Fixed Link is a major infrastructure project consisting of tunnels, bridges and access road and rail connections. The judgments of […]

State Aid and Arbitration of Disputes

Introduction On 22 February 2024, the Court of Justice [CJEU] delivered its judgment in joined Cases C-701/21 P and C-739/21 P, Mytilinaios v DEI & European Commission. Mytilinaios, a Greek company, and the Commission appealed against the judgment of the General Court in case T-639/14 RENV, DEI v Commission, concerning arbitration of a dispute between Mytilinaios and DEI, the main […]

A Large Regional Investment Project in Spain

Introduction Most State aid to “large” investment projects is granted by the Member States in Central and Eastern Europe. Moreover, most of the aid goes to induce companies to locate their projects in those countries and to overcome regional handicaps that make the investments less profitable or even loss-making than in other locations. By contrast, regional aid granted to large […]

Another Case of Indirect State Aid

Introduction On 19 May 2021, the General Court, in case T-643/20, Ryanair v Commission, annulled Commission decision SA.57116 by which it authorised State aid in favour of KLM in the context of the measures implemented by the Dutch government to address the covid-19 pandemic. In July 2021, the Commission re-adopted its original decision without the errors that had been identified […]

State Resources, Control and Imputability

Introduction A public measure can be classified as State aid only when it is funded from state resources. Measures funded from the budgets of public authorities are always considered to be supported by state resources. However, measures not funded from state budgets may still be supported by state resources. This is because, rather counterintuitively, the concept of state resources covers […]

Indirect Beneficiaries of State aid

Introduction The prohibition of State aid in Article 107(1) TFEU applies both to direct and indirect beneficiaries. The direct beneficiary is the formal recipient of the aid. However, the formal recipient may only act as an intermediary through which aid flows to third parties or may in fact be required by the aid measure to pass on some or most […]

Non-contractual Liability in the Field of State aid

Introduction The Commission, in its control of State aid, occasionally makes mistakes. EU courts may annul erroneous Commission decisions. This raises the question whether affected undertakings may ask for compensation. The answer is that in order to be eligible for compensation, an undertaking must have suffered damage as a result of an error that constitutes a “serious breach” of EU […]

Public Service Compensation and Indexation of Costs

Introduction Member States may impose public service obligations [PSO] on undertakings and compensate them for the extra costs they incur. The public service compensation [PSC] may also include reasonable profit. Naturally, the PSC may not cover costs that are not related to the PSO or the service of general economic interest [SGEI]. So, for multi-service providers, account separation is absolutely […]

Belgium and COVID-19: The European Commission Approves Several Belgian State Aid Measures

We are happy to share with you an update on the Covid-19 measures that have been approved in Belgium. Our guest auhor Wout De Cock is a PhD candidate at the Vrije Universiteit Brussel and part-time teaching assistant at the Katholieke Universiteit Leuven.* Introduction In issue 1/2020 of the European State Aid Law Quarterly, we concluded that the European Commission […]

COVID-19 Measures Adopted and State Aid Measures (Hopefully) to Be Adopted: An Update from Cyprus

We are happy to share with you an update on the Covid-19 measures that are or will be adopted in Cyprus. Our guest auhor Michail Kamperis is a lawyer and partner at the law firm of Ierotheou, Kamperis & Co. LLC Nicosia, Cyprus. * Sign up for our free news alert  Sign Up For Free   Cyprus is one of […]

Follow Up Webinar with Phedon Nicolaides on ‚COVID-19 and State Aid Law‘ on 20 April

The European Commission is working on quickly adapting the existing State aid legal framework to address the current Covid-19 pandemic. Join us on 20th April from the comfort and safety of your (home) office to get an insider update on the Covid-19 response by State aid experts from the European Commission and national governments. ✓ Join from wherever you are – […]

Open Access Content Related to Covid-19: At a Glance

During these tough times, Lexxion Publisher wants to help to spread current news and updates on new regulations or support measures for combating the impact of the corona pandemic. Various contributions will be available as open access during the upcoming weeks. This post lists all contributions and will be updated on a rolling basis. Contributions related to State Aid & […]

Covid-19 Support Package for Entrepreneurs: An Update from Poland

We are happy to share with you an update on the Covid-19 support package that Poland is creating to support entrepeneurs fighting the impact of the corona pandemic. Our guest auhor P. Kamil Rosiak is Attorney-at-Law & Partner Associate at KPMG D.Dobkowski LP in Warsaw.* On 28 March 2020 the lower house of Polish parliament (Sejm) passed a bill (so […]

Live Webinar: Covid-19 & State Aid Law in the UK Now

Lexxion has created another new live webinar to keep you updated on current developments of Covid-19 and State aid law in the UK after Brexit. Leading State aid experts Jonathan Branton, George Peretz QC and Alexander Rose will work through the current EU State aid rules and answer your questions.   ✓ Join from wherever you are – high-quality content at […]

Join our live webinar with Phedon Nicolaides on ‚COVID-19 and State Aid Law‘ on 2 April

Due to global developments and responding to various requests, Lexxion has created a live webinar to keep you updated on the latest news regarding the corona virus and State aid law. You can join from wherever you are and receive high-quality content at your (home) office.   In response to the Covid-19 pandemic, EU Member States are urgently rolling out […]

Court’s Diary – January 2018

Find below the court’s diary for all State aid cases this month. Would you like to write a comment on one of them? Please don’t hesitate and get in touch with us (stateaidhub@lexxion.eu), we are happy to publish your comment on the blog.   Tuesday 16/01/2018 Judgment in case T-747/15 – EDF v Commission (General Court – Third Chamber) Wednesday 17/01/2018 Judgment […]

15th Jubilee Feature – State Aid Experts Paying Court to EStAL: Alexander Rose

Since 2002 Lexxion Publisher’s European State Aid Law Quarterly – EStAL serves as a forum for dialogue and deliberation on all issues related to State aid. On the occasion of our 15th anniversary special feature we have gathered our State aid family to reflect upon their joint journey together with our precious EStAL and of course our favourite topic State […]

15th Jubilee Feature – State Aid Experts Paying Court to EStAL: Mihalis Kekelekis

Since 2002 Lexxion Publisher’s European State Aid Law Quarterly – EStAL serves as a forum for dialogue and deliberation on all issues related to State aid. On the occasion of our 15th anniversary special feature we have gathered our State aid family to reflect upon their joint journey together with our precious EStAL and of course our favourite topic State […]

How to Submit a Blog Post

Do you want to share your analysis of a State aid law topic? We invite you to submit your post on, for example: recent European, national or international judgments or legislation with relevance to EU State aid law; new developments, publications, hot topics in EU State aid law. The recommended length of the post is 500-2,000 words incl. references (endnotes). Your analysis will be published under the category ‘Guest State Aid Blog’.

Here’s how you can publish a post on the Blog as a guest author:

Step 1: Submit your draft to Nelly Stratieva at stratieva@lexxion.eu.

Step 2: We at Lexxion will review your draft to make sure its content and quality fit the blog. If needed, they will suggest what improvements you should make.

Step 3: Once your draft has been finalised and accepted, we will publish your post.

Submit your guest blog post

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