Europäisches Beihilfenrecht Blog

State Aid Uncovered by Prof Phedon Nicolaides

In Lexxions Blog „State Aid Uncovered” veröffentlicht Prof. Phedon Nicolaides wöchentlich kritische Analysen zu den neuesten Urteilen und Entscheidungen zu staatlichen Beihilfen. Jeder Beitrag stellt die wichtigsten Punkte eines Gerichtsurteils oder einer EU-Kommissionsentscheidung vor, ordnet sie in den Kontext ähnlicher Rechtsprechung oder Praxis ein, bewertet die zugrundeliegende Argumentation und zeigt etwaige Ungereimtheiten oder Widersprüche auf.

In loser Folge werden auf diesem Blog auch Gastbeiträge von anderen Experten für staatliche Beihilfen veröffentlicht, welche die Inhalte der Blogbeiträge ergänzen.

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Professor at Maastricht University; Professor at University of Nicosia, and Academic Director at Lexxion Training

- Public Service Compensation ×

Public Service Compensation and Indexation of Costs

Introduction Member States may impose public service obligations [PSO] on undertakings and compensate them for the extra costs they incur. The public service compensation [PSC] may also include reasonable profit. Naturally, the PSC may not cover costs that are not related to the PSO or the service of general economic interest [SGEI]. So, for multi-service providers, account separation is absolutely […]

What Costs Must be Included in Compensation for Public Service Obligations?

Introduction The two most difficult issues in imposing a public service obligation on a providers of a service of general economic interest is, first, the correct definition of the obligation and, second, the correct calculation of the amount of compensation that covers only the net extra cost of the service. The correct definition must take into account what the market […]

Compensation for the Net Cost of Public Service Obligations (Part II)

State Aid Blogs - State Aid Uncovered SM posts 18 1
Public service obligations must be imposed through an act of entrustment that defines clearly the terms of the service and the duration of the obligation. The “reasonable profit” in the public service compensation should reflect the risk borne by the provider. Introduction In 2009, the Commission received several complaints concerning State aid that Italy had granted to the various shipping […]

Compensation for the Net Cost of Public Service Obligations (Part I)

State Aid Blogs - State Aid Uncovered SM posts 19
Public service obligations must be imposed through an act of entrustment that defines clearly the terms of the service and the duration of the obligation. The “reasonable profit” in the public service compensation should reflect the risk borne by the provider. Introduction In 2009, the Commission received several complaints concerning State aid that Italy had granted to the various shipping […]

The Law, Economics and Art of Compensation for Public Service Obligations

State aid in the form of compensation for public service obligations must exclude any intangible benefits from the obligation, but may include reasonable profit. The Commission guidelines for State aid in agriculture and forestry, the block exemption regulations covering agriculture, forestry, fishery and aquaculture, and the Regulation on de minimis aid for fishery and aquaculture have been prolonged to 31 […]

A Rare Case of Altmark-compliant SGEI (Part II)

For a service to be in the general economic interest, it must be shown to fill a gap in the market or to offer what the market fails to provide adequately. [In case you have missed part I, you can access it here.] Introduction Services of general economic interest [SGEI] are important for the functioning of European societies. However, the […]

A Rare Case of Altmark-compliant SGEI (Part I)

For a service to be in the general economic interest, it must be shown to fill a gap in the market or to offer what the market fails to provide adequately. Introduction Services of general economic interest [SGEI] are important for the functioning of European societies. However, the granting of compensation to an undertaking for the provision of SGEI must […]

EU Decisions Override National Decisions on Compensation for Public Service Obligations

The principle of res judicata cannot be used to avoid recovery of incompatible State aid.   An update on State aid measures to counter the impact of COVID-19 As of 3 April 2020, the Commission has approved 29 measures submitted by 16 Member States. Article 107(3)(b) is the legal basis for 26 of those measures, while Article 107(2)(b) is the […]

How to Compensate for the Extra Cost of Public Service Obligations: Step-by-Step Guidance on a Complex Calculation

The “net avoided cost methodology” takes into account only incremental costs. Introduction The two most difficult issues in the design of State aid measures to support services of general economic interest [SGEI] are the proper definition of the public service obligation [PSO] and the identification of the “counterfactual” on the basis of which the public service compensation [PSC] is calculated. […]

The Date and Scope of Public Service Compensation

Aid is deemed to be granted on the date the beneficiary undertaking acquires the legal right to it, regardless of whether it is actually paid on that date. It is not enough for a public authority to define the service that it wants an operator to provide and the price that it should charge. It must also define where and […]

- Public Service Compensation ×

Public Service Compensation and Indexation of Costs

Introduction Member States may impose public service obligations [PSO] on undertakings and compensate them for the extra costs they incur. The public service compensation [PSC] may also include reasonable profit. Naturally, the PSC may not cover costs that are not related to the PSO or the service of general economic interest [SGEI]. So, for multi-service providers, account separation is absolutely […]

What Costs Must be Included in Compensation for Public Service Obligations?

Introduction The two most difficult issues in imposing a public service obligation on a providers of a service of general economic interest is, first, the correct definition of the obligation and, second, the correct calculation of the amount of compensation that covers only the net extra cost of the service. The correct definition must take into account what the market […]

Compensation for the Net Cost of Public Service Obligations (Part II)

State Aid Blogs - State Aid Uncovered SM posts 18 1
Public service obligations must be imposed through an act of entrustment that defines clearly the terms of the service and the duration of the obligation. The “reasonable profit” in the public service compensation should reflect the risk borne by the provider. Introduction In 2009, the Commission received several complaints concerning State aid that Italy had granted to the various shipping […]

Compensation for the Net Cost of Public Service Obligations (Part I)

State Aid Blogs - State Aid Uncovered SM posts 19
Public service obligations must be imposed through an act of entrustment that defines clearly the terms of the service and the duration of the obligation. The “reasonable profit” in the public service compensation should reflect the risk borne by the provider. Introduction In 2009, the Commission received several complaints concerning State aid that Italy had granted to the various shipping […]

The Law, Economics and Art of Compensation for Public Service Obligations

State aid in the form of compensation for public service obligations must exclude any intangible benefits from the obligation, but may include reasonable profit. The Commission guidelines for State aid in agriculture and forestry, the block exemption regulations covering agriculture, forestry, fishery and aquaculture, and the Regulation on de minimis aid for fishery and aquaculture have been prolonged to 31 […]

A Rare Case of Altmark-compliant SGEI (Part II)

For a service to be in the general economic interest, it must be shown to fill a gap in the market or to offer what the market fails to provide adequately. [In case you have missed part I, you can access it here.] Introduction Services of general economic interest [SGEI] are important for the functioning of European societies. However, the […]

A Rare Case of Altmark-compliant SGEI (Part I)

For a service to be in the general economic interest, it must be shown to fill a gap in the market or to offer what the market fails to provide adequately. Introduction Services of general economic interest [SGEI] are important for the functioning of European societies. However, the granting of compensation to an undertaking for the provision of SGEI must […]

EU Decisions Override National Decisions on Compensation for Public Service Obligations

The principle of res judicata cannot be used to avoid recovery of incompatible State aid.   An update on State aid measures to counter the impact of COVID-19 As of 3 April 2020, the Commission has approved 29 measures submitted by 16 Member States. Article 107(3)(b) is the legal basis for 26 of those measures, while Article 107(2)(b) is the […]

How to Compensate for the Extra Cost of Public Service Obligations: Step-by-Step Guidance on a Complex Calculation

The “net avoided cost methodology” takes into account only incremental costs. Introduction The two most difficult issues in the design of State aid measures to support services of general economic interest [SGEI] are the proper definition of the public service obligation [PSO] and the identification of the “counterfactual” on the basis of which the public service compensation [PSC] is calculated. […]

The Date and Scope of Public Service Compensation

Aid is deemed to be granted on the date the beneficiary undertaking acquires the legal right to it, regardless of whether it is actually paid on that date. It is not enough for a public authority to define the service that it wants an operator to provide and the price that it should charge. It must also define where and […]

- Public Service Compensation ×

Public Service Compensation and Indexation of Costs

Introduction Member States may impose public service obligations [PSO] on undertakings and compensate them for the extra costs they incur. The public service compensation [PSC] may also include reasonable profit. Naturally, the PSC may not cover costs that are not related to the PSO or the service of general economic interest [SGEI]. So, for multi-service providers, account separation is absolutely […]

What Costs Must be Included in Compensation for Public Service Obligations?

Introduction The two most difficult issues in imposing a public service obligation on a providers of a service of general economic interest is, first, the correct definition of the obligation and, second, the correct calculation of the amount of compensation that covers only the net extra cost of the service. The correct definition must take into account what the market […]

Compensation for the Net Cost of Public Service Obligations (Part II)

State Aid Blogs - State Aid Uncovered SM posts 18 1
Public service obligations must be imposed through an act of entrustment that defines clearly the terms of the service and the duration of the obligation. The “reasonable profit” in the public service compensation should reflect the risk borne by the provider. Introduction In 2009, the Commission received several complaints concerning State aid that Italy had granted to the various shipping […]

Compensation for the Net Cost of Public Service Obligations (Part I)

State Aid Blogs - State Aid Uncovered SM posts 19
Public service obligations must be imposed through an act of entrustment that defines clearly the terms of the service and the duration of the obligation. The “reasonable profit” in the public service compensation should reflect the risk borne by the provider. Introduction In 2009, the Commission received several complaints concerning State aid that Italy had granted to the various shipping […]

The Law, Economics and Art of Compensation for Public Service Obligations

State aid in the form of compensation for public service obligations must exclude any intangible benefits from the obligation, but may include reasonable profit. The Commission guidelines for State aid in agriculture and forestry, the block exemption regulations covering agriculture, forestry, fishery and aquaculture, and the Regulation on de minimis aid for fishery and aquaculture have been prolonged to 31 […]

A Rare Case of Altmark-compliant SGEI (Part II)

For a service to be in the general economic interest, it must be shown to fill a gap in the market or to offer what the market fails to provide adequately. [In case you have missed part I, you can access it here.] Introduction Services of general economic interest [SGEI] are important for the functioning of European societies. However, the […]

A Rare Case of Altmark-compliant SGEI (Part I)

For a service to be in the general economic interest, it must be shown to fill a gap in the market or to offer what the market fails to provide adequately. Introduction Services of general economic interest [SGEI] are important for the functioning of European societies. However, the granting of compensation to an undertaking for the provision of SGEI must […]

EU Decisions Override National Decisions on Compensation for Public Service Obligations

The principle of res judicata cannot be used to avoid recovery of incompatible State aid.   An update on State aid measures to counter the impact of COVID-19 As of 3 April 2020, the Commission has approved 29 measures submitted by 16 Member States. Article 107(3)(b) is the legal basis for 26 of those measures, while Article 107(2)(b) is the […]

How to Compensate for the Extra Cost of Public Service Obligations: Step-by-Step Guidance on a Complex Calculation

The “net avoided cost methodology” takes into account only incremental costs. Introduction The two most difficult issues in the design of State aid measures to support services of general economic interest [SGEI] are the proper definition of the public service obligation [PSO] and the identification of the “counterfactual” on the basis of which the public service compensation [PSC] is calculated. […]

The Date and Scope of Public Service Compensation

Aid is deemed to be granted on the date the beneficiary undertaking acquires the legal right to it, regardless of whether it is actually paid on that date. It is not enough for a public authority to define the service that it wants an operator to provide and the price that it should charge. It must also define where and […]

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